Previous Article Next Article HR directors in the UK are the highest paid in Europe, claims research by HRconsultants Towers Perrin. The study claims that the average basic salary for a HR director working inBritain is £110,946 – a year-on-year rise of nearly £7,000. When bonuses andshare options are taken into consideration, the annual pay package rises to£217,570 a year on average. The Worldwide Total Remuneration Survey shows that Belgium comes next with atotal package worth £210,365. However, surprisingly, HR directors are valued alot less by employers in France and Germany with average remuneration deals of£148,210 and £156,688 per year respectively. Damien Carnell, principal of the executive compensation unit at TowersPerrin, said, “UK companies value HR more than their Europeancounterparts. The pay results of the survey do not surprise me as HR thinkingis not as advanced in Europe. They do not see the results an engaged andcommitted workforce can bring.” But European pay scales in HR lag behind those in the US. HR directors inthe US receive the largest total remuneration in the world at an average of£313,751, and a basic salary of £125,742. Long-term incentives are better inthe US with share options averaging £81,732. “In the US, they have a high- pay, high-performance culture and arequick to restructure organisations and move people on if their performance isnot good enough – it is why they have the highest productivity in theworld,” said Carnell. Consultants Towers Perrin used HR salary data from 26 different countries. By Paul Nelson www.towers.com Comments are closed. UK HR directors have top pay packages in EuropeOn 18 Dec 2001 in Personnel Today Related posts:No related photos.
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Related posts:No related photos. To celebrate its Learning at Work Day on 16 May, organiser Campaign forLearning has put together this coaching quiz. Use it yourself or share it with line managers to see how your companymeasures upCoaching is an increasingly popular tool for staff development, but as thepreceding feature shows (Analysis page 12) it is in danger of not being properlyapplied. Its seemingly informal nature makes it open to abuse. There is also thedanger that line managers, who are relied upon to get the most from their staffand are the first choice to be coaches, are not fully competent. Yet it remains a valuable method and with this in mind the Campaign forLearning has put together the following quiz. It is not intended to be apanacea but can be used to measure the training department’s approach tocoaching and also to assess and help line managers on areas of weakness-perhapsforming the basis for discussion. Select one answer to each question and use the boxes below to see howcommitted to coaching you and your organisation really are. Q1. Listening You have a deadline looming and one of your staff interrupts with along-winded account of a problem he or she is having. Do you: a. Listen absent-mindedly while carrying on with your work? b. Stop what you are doing, invite them to sit down and tell you all aboutit in their own time. You will meet your deadline by working late. c. Stop what you are doing and give them your full attention for fiveminutes. Then interrupt gently, explaining you have a deadline, and arrange tomeet with them later to give the so that you can give the problem your full attention.d. A staff member would never interrupt when you are busy as you alwaysclose the door to prevent disturbances. Q2. Feedback An experienced staff member is working on a task for you that you believewill stretch them but is within their abilities. Do you: a. Ask for daily written reports on how they are progressing. b. Let them get on with it, they can ask if they have any problems. c. Ask regular, informal questions on specific aspects to establishprogress. d. You prefer to keep staff working safely within their own limits to avoidmistakes so this situation wouldn’t arise. e. Ask them what would be the appropriate intervals for review meetingswhere you can give support and note progress. Agree the dates. Q3. Understanding of Learning Styles Your department’s computer systems are being upgraded and you have beensent on a training course to learn the new system. You now have to transferyour knowledge to your staff. Do you: a. Gather everyone together in a meeting room, give them a copy of themanual and talk through the content. b. Gather everyone in a meeting room with a flip-chart and draw a diagram ofthe new system to explain it. c. Demonstrate the system personally on a computer with small groups ofstaff, making sure that everyone takes turns to sit at the computer and have ago. d. Send everyone a memo giving them details of the online help that isavailable for the new system and encouraging them to ask you if they have anyquestions. e. A combination of two or more of the above. Q4. Communication You want to introduce a new reporting method for the work of yourdepartment. This will involve all your staff making a simple change to the waythey document their work. Do you: a. Send a memo to everyone outlining the new method. b. Hold a meeting to discuss the new method and hand out the memo in themeeting. c. Send an e-mail to everyone outlining the new method. d. Pin one copy of the memo on a notice-board. e. Two or more of the above Q5 Inspiring individual learning One of your staff members has confided they would like to improve theirEnglish. Do you: a. Feel worried that you have employed someone with poor skills and startlooking for other signs that they are not up-to-scratch. b. Feel pleased they have asked for your advice and call the neighbouringcollege to find out what is on offer locally so you can give them the rightinformation. c. Offer to go with them to the local college to find out what is on offer. d. Tell them to ask for advice at the library. e. Discuss with them the benefits of improving their English, ask them toinvestigate possible sources of tuition and report back to you. Q6 developing skills You have noticed that one of your staff avoids situations where they haveto speak in public, despite a recent training course in presentation skills. Doyou: a. Offer to give him or her an informal presenting opportunity within thedepartment to practice their skills. b. Advise them to visualise giving successful presentations to help buildtheir confidence. c. Recommend a book that you have found useful in improving presentationtechnique. d. Conclude they will never be any good at giving presentations so make surethey don’t have the opportunity. e. Ask them to list the ways in which public speaking opportunities willbenefit them and discuss why they are avoiding taking the opportunity to speak.Q7. How do you handle poor performance? A staff member, who has been with you four months, has made a mistakewith serious consequences for your organisation. You have managed to resolvethe problem but it has caused you considerable trouble. Do you: a. Fire them immediately. You can do without staff that cause you this muchtrouble. b. As you have resolved the problem this time, you won’t say anything andhope it doesn’t happen again. c. Make time to have a private meeting with the staff member so that you canboth review what happened, focusing on the action not the person, and help themlearn from the experience. d. Give them a written warning so that they understand the serious nature oftheir mistake. Q8. How do you handle good performance? One of your staff members has performed a specific task very well. Thechief executive has personally let you know how impressed he or she is withtheir performance. Do you: a. Pass on the CEO’s praise personally to your staff member – you would havethanked them for their good work earlier. b. Make sure the CEO knows how you personally contributed to the successfulperformance. c. Stress to your staff member that he or she is part of a team, not anindividual star performer. d. Pass on the CEO’s praise personally to your staff member – you would havethanked them for their good work earlier. In the following few weeks you wouldalso take the time to give positive feedback to other team members. Q9. Do you communicate the big picture? Your chief executive has asked you to think about the strategic directionof your department over the next five years. Do you: a. Let your imagination run riot and create some suggestions based on yourown ideas. b. Send a memo to your staff asking them to send you suggestions. c. Hold a meeting, explaining what the CEO has requested and discuss a rangeof options with your staff. d. Ignore the request. You and your department have enough work to dowithout worrying about what will happen five years from now. Q10. Work-life balance One of your staff members is working late most nights to meet a tightdeadline. Do you: a. Say nothing, if they need help they will ask and there is nothing wrongwith working hard. b. Tell them they won’t be entitled to overtime but you are pleased to seethem working so hard. c. Ask them how they are progressing and help them review their workload tosee if they can reduce other aspects of their workload. d. Offer to work late with them every night until the deadline is met Answers (max score 30)Q1 Listening skills a b c d e 1 2 3 0 You need to make sure you can complete your own workQ2 Feedback a b c d e 0 0 2 0 3You need to give your staff the freedom to develop their owninitiative if you would like them to develop. Staff will stagnate and loseinterest if they are not stimulatedQ3 Understanding learning styles a b c d e 1 1 2 1 3Q4 Communication a b c d e 1 2 1 0 3 Q5 Inspiring individual learning a b c d e 0 2 1 1 3You are a manager not a parent. Staff may find it overpoweringto have too much support Q6 Developing skills Previous Article Next Article a b c d e 2 1 1 0 3Q7 Handling poor performance a b c d e 0 0 3 1Don’t wait to address staff performance issues. The longer youleave it the harder it will be Q8 Handling good performance a b c d e 2 0 0 3Q9 Big picture communication a b c d e 0 0 3 1Most people are interested in understanding how their job fitsinto the organisation as a wholeQ10 Work life balance a b c d e 0 0 3 1 What’s your score? are you good coach? Score between 0 and 10 You need to spend some timethinking about the best way of developing your coaching skills. Look back overthose areas where you scored zero which will help you identify your weaknesses,particularly in the people arenaScore between 11 and 20 You have already developed somecoaching skills but you cannot sit backon your laurels as there is still plenty of scope for becoming a more effectivecoach. For this reason look closely at those areas where you scored zeroScore between 21 and 30 Congratulations. You havealready developed some strong coaching skills . To become an even better coach, look back over those areas where you scored two or lessLearning at Work DayThis year’s Learning at Work Day is held on 16 May.You can find out more or carry outthis quiz online by logging on to www.campaign-for-learning.org.ukOr call 0117 966 7755 to register for free planning materials and to getinvolved Comments are closed. Measure your coaching skillsOn 1 May 2002 in Personnel Today
Comments are closed. What will the EU Employment Directive mean?On 25 Jun 2002 in Personnel Today Previous Article Next Article The EU Employment Directive will bring in age discrimination legislation inthe UK in 2006 – The second stage of the consultation starts in January 2003 and lasts forthree months – Under the EU Employment Directive legislation on sexual orientation andrace discrimination will be introduced from 2004 – The Government has set up a working group, including the CIPD, Socpo, EFoAand the TUC to help draft the legislation Related posts:No related photos.
Relationships at work result in satisfied staffOn 6 Aug 2002 in Personnel Today Related posts:No related photos. Previous Article Next Article Comments are closed. Employersreport that the workplace is becoming a happier and more consensual place tobe, research by IRS Employment Review finds.Thestudy claims that what really matters to most employees is not pay, butrelationships with managers and colleagues, recognition of contribution and jobsatisfaction. Only younger workers put pay issues high on their list ofimportant issues.Itreveals that just under two-thirds of respondents view the employmentrelationship as ‘good’ in their organisation, while one-third describe it as‘fair’. Sixin 10 respondents had heard of the term ‘psychological contract’, althoughrelatively few said it was very strong in their organisations.Nearly70 per cent of respondents believe relationships with line managers orsupervisors is the most important factor in creating a good relationshipbetween employers and staff, 68 per cent highlight quality of management, 55per cent view job satisfaction and communications as important and 52 per centregard job security as critical. IRSEmployment Review managing editor Mark Crail said: “We are getting a clearmessage from this research: management wants to listen and respond to staffneeds.”Thesurvey reveals that other issues contributing towards a happy workingrelationship include good relationships between colleagues (51 per cent), pay(49 per cent), working hours (38 per cent) and working culture (31 per cent).www.irsemploymentreview.com
Call for pension overhaulOn 1 Nov 2002 in Personnel Today Radical overhaul of pensions law is needed to resolve the pensions crisis,according to the National Association of Pension Funds. In a report last month it called for the scrapping of compulsory retirementages and the abolition of rules limiting employees from joining more than onepension scheme. The report, Pensions – Plain and Simple, backs the Government’smove to encourage phased retirement by removing tax rules preventing employeesreceiving pay and pension from the same employer. It recommends axing rules limiting the amounts staff can pay in to theirpension. “Today’s pension system is weighed down by red tape and jargon whichputs off workers from thinking about pensions, storing up potentially massiveproblems for the future,” said NAPF chairman Peter Thompson. n Employers are not moving quickly enough to defuse the pensions time-bomb,Sam Mercer, campaign director for the Employers Forum on Age, told delegates tothe CIPD annual conference held at Harrogate last month. They had “moved from a position of ignorance to awareness… But the nextmove has to be action,” she warned. EFA research showed around 80 per cent of employers knew that employeeswould have to work longer than they wished in order to receive the pension theyexpected. Previous Article Next Article Comments are closed. Related posts:No related photos.
Previous Article Next Article Comments are closed. GPswill give up the right to issue sick notes to workers by April 2006Withinthree years, OH professionals may take over the issuing of sick notes, underradical plans being drawn up by the Government and the medical profession.GPswill give up the right to issue sick notes to workers by 1 April 2006, as partof a new contract between negotiated by the British Medical Association (BMA)and the Department of Health (DoH) designed to reduce the workload of familydoctors.Sicknotes would instead be issued by OH professionals, either company doctors ornurses, according to Dr Simon Fradd, joint deputy chairman of the BMA’s GPs’committee.”Itwill be occupational health, but not just nurses. If it happens to be anurse-run system, then it will be nurse delivered,” he said.Atleast six pilot schemes are due to be set up by the autumn, with Coca-Cola’splant in Macclesfield one of the first expected to join. Negotiations are alsotaking place with a number of motor manufacturers and an NHS Plus site.Althoughopposition to the contract is growing among GPs, and it is not certain it willgo ahead, the plan to change illness certification will go ahead irrespectiveof the outcome, insisted Dr Fradd.Talksare due to begin with the CBI, the TUC and other unions on how the pilots willwork in practice, as well as continuing fine-tuning discussions with the DoH.Themain outstanding issues surrounded capacity – how the OH profession will copewith this new demand – and how it will work for smaller employers that do nothave OH schemes, he suggested. It is expected smaller firms would be allowed tobuy in illness certification services through specialist doctors or an existingOH scheme.Firmsare increasingly worried about the amount of time employees take off sick,despite the number of days lost to sickness falling to their lowest level for15 years.Undercurrent law, employees do not need a sick note until they have been off workfor seven days, although many firms insist on a note within this period. Sick note responsibility may pass on to OH professionalsOn 1 Jun 2003 in Personnel Today Related posts:No related photos.
Previous Article Next Article Comments are closed. UK ‘job jumpers’ dream of their ideal kind of jobOn 9 Sep 2003 in Personnel Today Britons are becoming a nation of ‘job jumpers’ spending just two-and-a-halfyears on average at a company before moving on, according to a report. The Career Progressive Report by internet bank Cahoot finds almostthree-quarters of staff want to change career, and half the 1,100 workerssurveyed (47 per cent) thought they would be likely to change the course oftheir careers at least three times. Personal fulfilment is rated as the most important factor in a career andunfulfilled workers are not willing to stick at a job they are not enjoying forthe rest of their working years. Of the 25-34 age group, just 12 per cent believe they will stick with thesame career. This compares with 30 per cent of those aged 55 and over who saythey are likely to stay loyal to one employer throughout their workinglifetime. Women are more likely than men to change jobs within two years (17 per centcompared to 8 per cent) with one in eight changing career plans because theywant to have children. Cahoot managing director Deborah Cutler said: “It is tragic that somany of us are sitting in jobs we find unsatisfying because we think we can’tafford to change.” The report also reveals that a quarter of Britons’ dream career would be tobecome a writer and one in 10 say they would like to be in the movies. Thirteen per cent of men reveal they dream of being a professional sportsmancompared to just 1 per cent of women. Related posts:No related photos.
Comments are closed. Previous Article Next Article Council’s HR team fights to stop strike actionOn 21 Oct 2003 in Personnel Today Hackney Council’s HR team has hit the streets to combat the threat of strikeaction over new contracts for street cleaning staff. The GMB, T&G and Unison unions have accused the local authority ofthreatening to fire their refuse and street cleaning workforce if they fail toaccept new pay and conditions, and the unions are now threatening industrialaction. To address these concerns, the council’s HR team has gone on ‘road shows’ tothe cleaning depot to speak to on-duty staff on a one-to-one basis. Terry McDougall, assistant chief executive of HR at Hackney, said:”Employees are more comfortable speaking with HR representatives personallyand at the same time it allows the team to listen to individual concerns moreeffectively.” As a result of this approach, she said 55 out of the 73 street sweepers inthe borough have now accepted the new terms. The unions are to ballot more than 270 staff for strike action, and claimthat new contracts will cut wages by up to £60 a week, with failure to acceptnew terms resulting in workers being fired on the 23 December. Unison representative, Eddy Coulson said: “Throwing loyal staff on thedole is some Christmas present and is not something we will allow tohappen.” McDougall said the changes were standard ‘terminate and re-engage’contracts, which brought the refuse service in line with other councilservices. She said the union line was “harsh, emotive andregrettable”. Related posts:No related photos.
HRis under pressure to recruit more wisely, and an increasing number oforganisations are now using assessment tools to make better informed decisions.Nic Paton reportsLondon-basedmarketing firm Chemistry Communications Group has been tightening up itsrecruitment practices of late. According to HR manager Denise de Rozario, thecompany – which employs about 90 people in two offices in the capital and onein Southampton – has hired around 15 people since February, and now usespsychometric testing as the norm. “Ourline managers have found it incredibly useful because it gives them an insightinto how they might shape their qualities,” she says. “We are doingmany more psychometric profiles than we were three years ago.”Theyare not the only ones. In a survey of more than 250 HR professionals and 8,000jobseekers by recruitment firm Reed, more than half (55 per cent) of thosepolled said they were using assessment tools more when recruiting now than theywere three years ago. Testsand presentationsPresentationsand psychometric tests were embraced by more than half the survey’s sample,with competency-based interviews also in the top three of favourite assessmentmethods. InDe Rozario’s case, potential candidates have a first interview with her, thenfill in a personality profile, which is followed by a second interview.”It is so hard to recruit, and there are so many variables,” shesays. “Testing helps us tell whether someone is going to fit into theorganisation. Candidates like it too; they say it seems much more professional.”Increasingly,it seems the days of relying on gut instinct when appointing candidates aredisappearing. That type of subjective decision-making can still have its place,but testing and assessment brings an extra dimension and sophistication to theprocess. TheReed survey also shows some interesting differences when it comes to sectors.The public sector, for instance, makes much more use of presentations, groupexercises and work simulation tests, although overall, the top three remain thesame.Themanufacturing sector, by contrast, is less keen on work simulation tests, whilethe service sectors are less interested in working through a series of tasks inan allotted time, otherwise known as ‘in-tray’ exercises.Amongjobseekers, 76 per cent of those polled agreed that employers were usingassessments more now than in the past.Fewerthan one in 10 had experienced in-tray exercises. But all the other categoriesof assessment – competency-based interviews, personality questionnaires,psychometric tests, presentations, work-simulation tests and group exercises –had been experienced by more than one in three jobseekers.Othertests cited included role play, verbal comprehension, IQ and intelligencetests, maths and logic tests and graphology and handwriting analysis. Themost popular tests among jobseekers were competency-based interviews (37 percent), followed by work simulation tests (23 per cent), and personalityquestionnaires (12 per cent).Bycontrast, psychometric tests were believed to be the worst at identifying theright person by more than one in five jobseekers (22 per cent), followed bypersonality questionnaires (18 per cent).Athird said that undertaking assessments made them feel better about theorganisation they were applying to, whether or not they got the job. This wasdouble the number who said assessments made them feel worse. Theascent of assessmentsSowhy the need for change? The Reed survey points to the tougher jobs market,meaning firms have more candidates to choose from for fewer jobs, and so theneed for more tools to select the best and weed out the worst. But there may beother factors at work too, suggests Stephanie Peckham, lead consultant at HRconsultancy DBM.”HRdepartments are under a lot more pressure to make the correct decision onrecruitment, because it is so expensive and reflects on the company. There ishuge pressure to get it right,” she explains.Ascompanies increasingly want to use tests in the recruitment process, it isgoing to become necessary for HR to take a bigger role in educating peopleabout what assessment can bring to the table and, crucially, what itslimitations are. “Theimportant thing is for HR to know what it is measuring in the firstplace,” Peckham adds. “Job analyses need to look at what sort oftraits they are looking for.” Similarly,argues Laura Frith, chartered psychologist and head of Reed Consulting,managers now have a greater appreciation of what assessment tools are availableto them.”Atthe moment, many organisations are going through restructuring programmesthat involve changes in organisationalculture. At such times, the ability of assessment tools to assess intangiblessuch as attitude and cultural fit becomes more important than ever,” shesays.Therecan also be the brand benefit that can come from carrying out well thought out,rigorous and effective assessments. “A good assessment programme actuallymakes people feel better about the organisation they have applied for, even ifthey do not get the job,” says Frith. “In today’s competitive times,where employer brand and consumer brand are frequently indivisible, building agood impression with the thousands of candidates who are turned away can be avital benefit to the organisation.”But,De Rozario warns, it is important HR remembers that testing, for all itsmerits, remains just one element of the recruitment process. “Youwant something that is just going to be part of the process – it is importantthat you don’t just zone in on these things,” she says. Previous Article Next Article Assessing the oddsOn 11 Nov 2003 in Personnel Today Comments are closed. Related posts:No related photos.
Previous Article Next Article Related posts:No related photos. Making a differenceOn 8 Mar 2005 in Personnel Today What are public sector HR leaders doing to tackle diversity issues? Personnel Today asks four organisations Department of Trade and IndustryShirley Pointer, HR director, says: “Our policy is to encourage employers to maximise the benefits of diversity in their own workforce. We also deliver services, such as those offered by Business Links, to a diverse community of customers and stakeholders.“For our own staff, we have concentrated on building an infrastructure that supports their diversity. We have made diversity an integral part of our performance appraisal system and established diversity champions in business units. We have established a network of employee-led equality advisory groups, which we consult about a wide range of policy and change issues. “We are committed to building on this in the future, particularly as we implement our department-wide change programme. We are conducting race, gender and disability impact assessments to ensure that our plans do not have a negative effect on the diversity of our workforce. We are also working to move from centrally-led initiatives to mainstreaming diversity into the way we work, making diversity a core element of our employment proposition.” Department for Work and PensionsDr Barbara Burford, director of diversity & equality, says: “The Department for Work and Pensions is a government department with the potential to touch the lives of all UK citizens. We believe that equality of opportunity and outcome, as well as actively valuing diversity, is morally right, socially desirable and makes good business sense.“Our philosophy is based on the concept that ‘to treat me equally, you may have to treat me differently’.The DWP’s strategy ‘Opportunity and security throughout life’ sets out three clear goals:To provide greater opportunities for people to workTo support families and childrenTo provide security and dignity in retirement.“In support of these goals, our diversity strategy ‘Diversity with purpose’ focuses activities and seeks outcomes which will promote diversity across the DWP covering all aspects of its role as a policy maker, an employer and a provider of customer service. “There are several examples of tools and products that have been mainstreamed into the DWP as part of our commitment to ensure that diversity issues are at the core of all our work. These include the ‘impact assessment framework’ – a tool to guide decision-makers when assessing policies to ensure that they do not disproportionately affect any particular group. ‘Race to improve’ is a series of products aimed at ensuring all our services are accessible to older and ethnic minority customers, while the ‘diversity toolkit’ is available through our intranet, covering all aspects of diversity legislation, guidance and good practice.”Merseyside Fire and Rescue ServiceNick Mernock, personnel manager, says: “We are building relationships that ensure the service fully represents the communities we serve.We continue to develop the procedures to actively encourage participation by community groups and their leaders as diversity partners to support and develop our practices and the profile of the service.“This is supported by clear actions to ensure that everyone who wishes to pursue a career in the fire service is given every opportunity to do so.This involves pre-recruitment assistance in both mental and physical skills; open access to all our buildings and managers before application; clear and transparent policies and participation in initiatives. For example, we are an approved user of the disability ‘two-tick symbol’ – a recognition given by Jobcentre Plus to employers who have agreed to meet five commitments regarding the recruitment, employment, retention and career development of disabled people.“We want everyone to have access to the service and we continue to develop our community advocates programme with the appointment of bi-lingual advocates, including Chinese, Asian, Somali and Yemani speakers. We have also appointed advocates to work with the deaf, disabled, older and younger members of the community.”Essex Ambulance Service NHS TrustKim Nurse, director of human resources, says: “Promoting equality of opportunity, good race relations and eliminating illegal discrimination must be at the heart of all modern services, and the NHS is no different. As an NHS organisation we have been developing our capacity to set goals, assessing our own performance, and demonstrating improvements in health and healthcare. This has also included measuring progress in diversity. “We recognise that making progress requires leadership, sustained commitment, resources and managerial attention. We have invested in leadership development programmes for all our managers, and diversity courses are built into our professional training courses and annual development updates for all staff.“We constantly improve our ethnic monitoring data, both by reviewing our existing workforce and throughout new recruitment episodes. The percentage of women entering the profession has increased significantly over the past few years, partly because of our flexible working arrangements and family friendly policies. “We have a mentoring scheme where managers volunteer to support staff from minority ethnic backgrounds. All our new emergency medical technicians are allocated a mentor to support them through their first year of professional practice. This two-way process is excellent in providing the trust with information about where we might address our training and development focus in the future to improve patient care.“Working with our occupational health advisers, existing and new staff – who may require aids adaptations or support to enter or remain in employment if they have a disability – have been actively pursued to ensure our services continue to benefit from their experience and expertise within the workforce. “The NHS is a growth organisation. It is essential that we present ourselves as a model organisation with modern employment practices. As a county-wide emergency service our trust strives to engage with all community groups and to grow our workforce to reflect our communities. We are striving to create an organisation in which diversity issues are integral to all decision-making and the workforce is well balanced and continues to deliver a patient-centred service.” Comments are closed.